TGID Newsletters

TGID Newsletters

TGID (Thank Goodness It's Dalton!) Newsletters

Our short and sweet TGID newsletters are emailed every Friday to Dalton distributors. Sometimes you'll find a write up on a new cartridge heater or platen heater application, and other times you'll find tried-and-true selling tips. We also take the time to occasionally spotlight one of our many fine Dalton employees.

One thing you will always find in TGID is our Friday Funnies—this is sure to give you an end-of-week chuckle or smile. We invite you to read, learn, and enjoy TGID!

Center Groove2018-09-07


                      Center Groove 


Last week we looked at the side groove for the inclusion of a thermocouple with a Watt-Flex®

cartridge heater.  Benefits are replaceability of the t/c, temperature monitoring at the point of

temp. transfer and the ability to look at the temperature anywhere along the profile of the sheath. 

There are, however, limitations on side grooving that have to do with the size of the heater. 


If the heater is 1/2" diameter and longer than 7" or any larger diameter, it must be center

grooved.  This groove will generally extend 6" into the heater from the terminal end …. the

critical design is that the end of the thermocouple extends into the heated section of the

heater. All needle-type thermocouples to be inserted into a center groove will be .040”




This can be assembled into a header with stainless hose or braid and forms a convenient

package for heat and control.



The thermocouple will still monitor the sheath heat at a location more accurate to the

actual temperature being transferred to the host metal.  Conventional heaters are

restricted to measuring internal coil temperature.



   Friday Funnies


         FOR LEXOPHILES (LOVERS OF WORDS):                 


  1. He broke into song because he couldn't find the key.
  2. A calendar's days are numbered.
  3. A lot of money is tainted: 'Taint yours, and 'taint mine.
  4. A boiled egg is hard to beat.
  5. He had a photographic memory which was never developed.
  6. A plateau is a high form of flattery.
  7. A short fortuneteller who escaped from prison: a small medium at large.
  8. Those who get too big for their britches will be exposed in the end.
  9. When you've seen one shopping center you've seen a mall.
  10. If you jump off a Paris bridge, you are in Seine.
  11. When she saw her first strands of gray hair, she thought she'd dye.
  12. Bakers trade bread recipes on a knead to know basis.
  13. Santa's helpers are subordinate clauses.
  14. Acupuncture: a jab well done.

Thermocouple Profiles2018-09-05

Thermocouple Profiles


We have had some questions about the profile of the thermocouple groove, so I

thought I would pass along some pictures to clarify.  There are other excellent

pictures of thermocouples on our website:




This is the profile of the groove into which the needle-type thermocouple is inserted.

It slides along the groove (within the diameter of the heater and bore) to the tip of

the heater and can monitor the temperature at any point along the profile of the

heater, depending on how far it is inserted.  The below picture shows the tip of the

thermocouple inserted to monitor temperature at the hot tip of the heater.




The other great advantage of this construction is that the thermocouple can be

replaced without having to trash the heater.  A thermocouple/conventional

cartridge heater usually loses the t/c first, but the entire assembly must be replaced.




  Friday Funnies




  1. A bicycle can't stand alone; it is two tired.
  2. A will is a dead giveaway.
  3. Time flies like an arrow; fruit flies like a banana.
  4. A backward poet writes inverse.
  5. In a democracy it's your vote that counts; in feudalism, it's your Count that votes.
  6. A chicken crossing the road: poultry in motion.
  7. If you don't pay your exorcist you can get repossessed.
  8. With her marriage she got a new name and a dress.
  9. Show me a piano falling down a mine shaft and I'll show you A-flat miner.
  10. When a clock is hungry it goes back four seconds.
  11. The guy who fell onto an upholstery machine was fully recovered.
  12. A grenade fell onto a kitchen floor in France, resulting  in Linoleum Blownapart.
  13. You are stuck with your debt if you can't budge it.
  14. Local Area Network in Australia: The LAN down under.

An Appreciated Success2018-08-29

An Appreciated Success


We were contacted by an Engineer from a new customer in Europe.  He had a small brass shape that

he needed heated for a specialized sealing machine.  He had some problems with moisture during

wash-down and we reached a point where we performed a complete analysis of the application with

heat study, heater design and protection against contamination.  The communications went on for a

couple of months while the machine design went through changes.




After some good period of time we completed the heater specifications and design location and

sent the order to manufacturing.  During the next two months, the heaters were made and shipped

and used in the sealing machine.  Then we received an email from the Engineer, informing us that

he had received a company award for fixing an application that had been plaguing operators for

years.  He was so pleased with our cooperation and his success, he promised that he would send

a bottle of champagne.


This week a beautiful bottle of Ice Rose (bubbly) arrived.  It was divided and enjoyed by a cast of

Dalton Electric characters and we sent a picture with a toast to the success of the Engineer.  Give

us your tough applications, the poor performance jobs that you come across.  We will work hard

to see that you have a good shot at a similarly wonderful reward !!!





             Friday Funnies

Teacher: Johnny, please use the words “letter carrier” in a sentence.
Johnny: Yes, ma’am. “My dad said that after seeing how many things my mom was bringing on
              vacation, he would rather letter carrier own luggage.”
First woman: My son came to visit for summer vacation.
Second woman: How nice! Did you meet him at the airport?
First woman: Oh, no. I’ve known him for years!

Dane Blake - 40 Years2018-08-22

Dane Blake – 40 Years


40 Years ago Star Wars was released, WKRP and Taxi debuted, Saturday Night Live introduced the

Blues Brothers, Jimmy Carter was inaugurated as President, Lego Man was born, Radio Shack

introduced the TRS-80, Elvis died and Dane Blake started working for Dalton Electric.  Dane’s father

would shortly become the first person to retire from Dalton.


When Dane started, we had a dozen manufacturing employees and a few people in the office.  Dane

has been principally serving in the brazing and welding department, having worked on hundreds of

thousands of cartridge heaters.  He has brazed stainless hose and braid to headers and welded

headers, flanges, brackets and fittings to cartridge heaters as well as trained countless new welders.




Dane chose a pizza fest for his lunch and it was thoroughly enjoyed by all.  His vanilla and chocolate

cake was accompanied by ice cream. In addition to a substantial pre-loaded VISA card, Dane was

presented with a silver serving tray and four monogrammed whiskey glasses.  Dane has cut back in

his weekly hours in anticipation of retirement, and is still a most valuable asset to Dalton Electric.





     Friday Funnies


A woman came home to find her retired husband waiving a rolled-up newspaper around his head. 

She asked, “What on earth are you doing, dear?”


He replied, “Swatting flies.  I got three males and two females.”


“And just how do you know what gender they are?” she inquired.


“Easy” he answered. “Three were on my beer and two were on the phone.”


Buying Decisions2018-08-13

Buying Decisions


Prospects have a process by which they make buying decisions. It is imperative that a salesperson

determines this process before making a presentation.  First, it is most important to be selling to the

decision maker.  If the question is not asked, your customer may politely listen and even engage in

your discussion, to no ultimate effect.  Occasionally, the process may include two individuals, perhaps

a Buyer and an Engineer.


Determining who the decision maker is goes a long way in understanding the decision making process.

What should the approach be? … How is the decision ultimately made? … What is the time frame for

making it?  If one makes a presentation or submits a proposal without this advanced knowledge, the

salesperson risks presenting the wrong information to the wrong person, at the wrong time and/or in

a manner inconsistent with the prospect’s decision making process.


Obtaining a buying commitment must begin with questions and not simple assumptions.  Determine

what the process is, who makes the decision, can it be made now or at some specific future timing

and, if possible and prior to the presentation, a commitment that a decision will be made.  If the

commitment is for a future time, be sure to add a recall on your calendar.



              Friday Funnies


NEW High School Teacher


After retiring from the service, a former Gunnery Sergeant took a new job as a high school teacher. 

Just before the school year started, he injured his back. He was required to wear a light plaster cast

around the upper part of his body.  Fortunately, the cast fit under his shirt and wasn't noticeable when

he wore his suit coat.


On the first day of class, he found himself assigned to the toughest students in the school.  The smarty

punks, having already heard the new teacher was former military, were leery of him and he knew they

would be testing his discipline in the classroom.


Walking confidently into the rowdy classroom, the new teacher opened the window wide and sat down

on his desk.  When a strong breeze blew through the open window, it made his tie flap. He picked up a

stapler and stapled the tie to his chest.


Dead Silence .


The rest of the year went smoothly.

Life Factor Summary2018-08-07

Life Factor Summary


Watt-Flex® cartridge heaters win on all counts !!!


For the last nine weeks, we have analyzed the factors that influence the life of a

cartridge heater:


1)  Watt Density

2)  Heater Design (integrity of resistance wire, amount of insulation)

3)  Process Temperature

4)  Temperature Control Mechanism

5)  Heat Sink Material

6)  Fit in the bore

7)  Environmental Factors (Contamination, Shock, Vibration)


Salespeople who approach both new sales situations and problems that customers

encounter as opportunities to exercise their technical and problem solving abilities

will be very successful.  Dalton Electric technical engineers and Regional Sales

Managers have the technical and historical experience to provide the support to

assist you in this endeavor.  Give us a call, send us broken heaters, ours or

conventional heaters and let us help you to be a hero in your customers eyes.


We continue to enjoy a banner year in 2018 with strong growth in our new customer

base, excellent continuation from our existing customers and O.E.M’s and healthy

growth from our distributor network.  This will be another best year in our history,

testament to customers that continue to come to a problem solver and a heater

supplier that will cut their cost of heating.




                     Friday Funnies



A very attractive, statuesque blonde, the exec. VP's new secretary, was standingEn

by the paper shredder looking a bit confused.


"Need some help?" I offered, hoping to meet her.


"Yes," she replied. "I'm not familiar with all these office machines.  How does this

thing work?"


"Quite simple," I said, taking the fat report from her hand and feeding it into the



I choked when she commented, "Thanks, where do the copies come out?"


Life Factor # 72018-07-27

Life Factor # 7


Environmental Factors


Environment is one of the toughest factors to influence.  Often times customer will have

ultimate control over exposure of a heater to contamination, but will not take the steps

necessary to achieve full life expectation of the heater.  The solution could be something

as simple as placing a guard or barrier to stop oil from dripping on the terminals.  Or it

could take place in the design of a machine, as in where the leads are anchored to

eliminate shock from movement cycling.


A distributor salesman usually gets the problem after it has manifested itself as heater

failure.   Dalton Electric takes the approach that it is incumbent on us to accommodate

an application and modify the heater to work with the givens of an application.  We rely

closely on you to secure a return of the damaged heater and to advise us on the

environmental conditions causing the failure.




If the solution to the problem can be affected by a customer change in design, that is an

easy and effective fix.  But causing a customer to change a routine can often be the hardest,

even when they realize that it is the cause of the problem.  That is when we step in with

suggestions for changes to the heater.  Possible solutions could be contaminate barriers,

including RTV or ceramic potting or the addition of a header or sleeving.  For failure due to

flexing, we can increase the size of the lead wire, add a clip support or change the terminal

design.  Problems outside the bore may be addressed by increasing the length of the

heater with the addition of an extra cold terminal end.  But, again, we rely on you to be a

big part of the solution.




     Friday Funnies


A thief in Paris planned an elaborate scheme to steal some paintings from the Louvre.  After

careful planning, he got past security, stole the paintings and made it safely to his van.  

However, he was captured only two blocks away when his van ran out of gas. When asked

how he could mastermind such a crime and then make such an obvious error, he replied,

"Monsieur, that is the reason I stole the painting...I had no Monet to buy Degas to make the

Van Gogh." 

(And I questioned if I had De Gaulle to print this one in the TGID Newsletter.) 

Well, I figured I had nothing Toulouse.

Life Factor # 62018-07-27

Life Factor # 6


Fit in the Bore


It's an old subject for this "TGID" Newsletter, but it certainly is critical to life of the heater.  A

cartridge heater transfers heat to a heat sink as discussed last week.  It is accomplished in

two ways ... radiantly or through conduction (intimate contact with the bore).  And the Watt-

Flex® cartridge heater has a tremendous advantage over conventional, solid tube heaters.


The critical issue in achieving the far more efficient conduction heating is "fit".  Fit is the

difference between the O.D. of the heater and the I.D. of the bore.  A good, tight fit will

insure effective heat transfer ... unfortunately it will almost ensure bore seizure with a con-

ventional solid tube cartridge.  If the fit is loosened up a bit to assist with eventual removal,

greater radiant heating will decrease heat transfer effectiveness.




The Watt-Flex® cartridge heater (above on the right) is inserted into the bore and expands

to affect greater surface conduction, double that of a conventional heater.  Better conduction

of the heat allows the heater to run cooler to maintain the set point temperature:  Longer

Life !!!




                      Friday Wisdom



A group of alumni, highly established in their careers, got together to visit their old university

professor. Conversation soon turned into complaints about stress in work and life.

Offering his guests coffee, the old professor went to the kitchen and returned with a large pot

of coffee and an assortment of cups - porcelain, plastic, glass, crystal, some plain looking,

some expensive, some exquisite - telling them to help themselves to the coffee.  When all

the students had a cup of coffee in hand, the professor said: "If you noticed, all the nice

looking expensive cups were taken up, leaving behind the plain and cheap ones."


"While it is normal for you to want only the best for yourselves, that is the source of your

problems and stress. Be assured that the cup itself adds no quality to the coffee. In most

cases it is just more expensive and in some cases even hides what we drink. What all of

you really wanted was coffee, not the cup, but you consciously went for the best cups ...

and then you began eyeing each other's cups."

"Now consider this: Life is the coffee; the jobs, money and position in society are the cups.

They are just tools to hold and contain Life, and the type of cup we have does not define,

nor change the quality of life we live. Sometimes, by concentrating only on the cup, we fail

to enjoy the coffee God has provided us."

"God brews the coffee, not the cups.......... Enjoy your coffee!
The happiest people don't have the best of everything.
They just make the best of everything.
Live simply. Love generously. Care deeply. Speak kindly."

Life Factor # 52018-07-13

Life Factor # 5


Heat Sink Material


One factor contributing to the life of a cartridge heater is the ability to pull the heat away

from the heater into the heat sink. We already start with a big advantage in that the split

sheath heater will expand and make contact with the walls of the bore for superior heat

transfer.  But if the heater is inserted into a bore in ceramic insulation, little heat moves

away from the heater and the heat build-up will cook the heater unless the watt density

is extremely low.


Thermal conductivity is the intensive property of a material that indicates its ability to

conduct heat.  Copper has an extremely high thermal conductivity and will literally

draw the heat away from the heater and distribute it quickly and evenly about its mass.

Aluminum is about half that of copper, but still extremely effective in drawing and

distributing heat.  Cast and wrought iron and mild carbon steel, commonly used in

tooling and platens are fair.   Worse yet, stainless steel is quite low in thermal conductivity.




Higher watt densities can be tolerated by heat sink material with higher thermal

conductivity and, as the watt density climbs, the heat sink begins to factor in the

decision of tolerable or even warrantable wattage.  If watt density is high, give us

a call at Dalton and we’ll talk about the application..



               Friday Funnies


A co-worker returned after lunch carrying a dress from the cleaners. "Pretty," said one

of the guys.  "Big date tonight?"


"I picked it up for a friend," she replied.  "Do you really think I could fit in a tiny thing

like this?"


He smiled and said, "Do you really think I've lived this long by answering questions

like that?"

Life Factor # 42018-07-06

Life Factor # 4


Temperature Control Mechanism


As you know, Dalton Electric does not sell Temperature Controls.  But distributors with whom we

work do sell them and are in a position to exploit the opportunity of synergistic sales.  Our discussion

of life factors for a heater will be limited to the effect that different types of control have on the

cartridge.  The order of controllers will be from most harsh to kindest:


The analog controller is one that establishes a temperature window and turns the power on at the

low limit and turns it off at the upper limit.  This is the hardest style of control for a heater as the

relay is simply slamming current to the resistance coil.



A proportional control will reduce the heat output gradually as the process approaches the set

point temperature and is much kinder to the heater.  A PID controller will introduce the integral

and derivative action which more capably controls varying loads at set point.  In each controller

the ratio of "on" to "off" time changes, adjusting the power delivered to the heater, decreasing

stress on the resistance coil and contributing to longer life.     



Finally, the kindest power input to a cartridge heater is a Variac transformer.  This device

controls the amount of voltage supplied to the heater at a constant level.  This reduced continuous

supply of voltage will result in the least stress to the heater and result in maximum life.




        Friday Funnies      


Normal people believe that if it ain't broke, don't fix it.

Engineers believe that if it ain't broke, it doesn't have enough features yet.

Life Factor # 32018-06-29

Life Factor # 3


Process Temperature


The process temperature in an application influences the life of the cartridge heater which both

provides and lives in that heat.  Low heat applications such as plastic molding, packaging

and rubber processing do not put much demand on heaters and they can be expected to

work efficiently for years.  Higher temperature (mid-range) applications like battery processing

and metal die casting place greater stress on the heater.


Since the higher temperature generally requires higher watt densities from the heater to

provide the heat, life issues are impacted.  The key to long life becomes a balance between

the number of heaters used and a manageable watt density.  As the internal temperature of

the heater goes higher, the ability of the MgO insulation to provide a di-electric barrier to

shorting from coil to sheath is reduced. 


In applications such as scorching dies and plastic-state metal forming (titanium) in

temperature ranges from1200 to 1900 degF, the heat is achieved by very high watt

density in the platen or die.  But this is accomplished by packing many heaters with very

low watt density into the work piece, since the extremely high temperature can be

destructive to the heaters.  Watt-Flex® cartridge heaters can be effectively used in extremely

high heat applications and, again, it pays to consult a Regional Manager or engineer at

Dalton Electric.





                Friday Funnies



A census taker in a rural area went up to a farmhouse and knocked. When a woman came

to the door, he asked her how many children she had and their ages. She said, Les see

now, there’s the twins, Sally and Billy, they’re eighteen. And the twins, Seth & Beth, they’re

fourteen. And the twins, Penny and Jenny, they’re nine ..


Hold on!” said the census taker, “Did you get twins EVERY time?


The woman answered,Heck no, there were hundreds of times we didn’t get nothin'.”

Life Factor # 2 (continued)2018-06-22

Life Factor # 2  (continued) 


Heater Design


Last week we explored Heater Design and its impact on the working life of a cartridge heater. 

Dielectric or insulation of the coil in the sheath and heat movement away from coil are both

significant factors.  The two failure modes of any cartridge heater are a short to ground and

an opening of the electrical continuity.  Therefore, the other major consideration in heater

design that impacts life is the integrity of the coil.


The gage or size of the wire is simply a matter of applying Ohms Law to the specification for

the heater.  Watts and volts establish a resistance and the wire that is coiled has a specific

resistance per inch that provides total ohms required.  There are a few design processes that

can be employed to optimize the winding to provide a more substantial wire, as very fine wire

will heat fatigue and open much more easily than a thick, larger diameter wire. 


Very occasionally, we will contact you to ask if we can change the specification, possibly

halving the voltage and running heaters in series.  This will result in a much more substantial

resistance coil and elimination of early failure from heat fatigue of fine wire.  As always,

Dalton will be seeking to optimize the working life of the heater.




         Friday Funnies


Does the statement, "We've always done it that way" ring any bells?

The US standard railroad gauge (distance between the rails) is 4 feet, 8.5 inches.

That's an exceedingly odd number. Why was that gauge used? Because that's the way

they built them in England, and English expatriates built the US Railroads.

Why did the English build them like that? Because the first rail lines were built by the

same people who built the pre-railroad tramways, and that's the gauge they used. Why

did "they" use that gauge then? Because the people who built the tramways used the

same jigs and tools that they used for building wagons, which used that wheel spacing.

Okay!  Why did the wagons have that particular odd wheel spacing? Well, if they tried

to use any other spacing, the wagon wheels would break on some of the old, long distance

roads in England, because that's the spacing of the wheel ruts.

So who built those old rutted roads? Imperial Rome built the first long distance roads in

Europe (and England) for their legions. The roads have been used ever since.  And the ruts

in the roads? Roman war chariots formed the initial ruts, which everyone else had to match

for fear of destroying their wagon wheels. Since the chariots were made for Imperial Rome,

they were all alike in the matter of wheel spacing.  The United States standard railroad

gauge of 4 feet, 8.5 inches is derived from the original specifications for an Imperial Roman

war chariot. And bureaucracies live forever.

So the next time you are handed a specification and wonder what horse's a** came up with

it, you may be exactly right, because the Imperial Roman army chariots were made just

wide enough to accommodate the back ends of two war horses.


Now the twist to the story:

When a Space Shuttle was sitting on its launch pad, there were two big booster rockets

attached to the sides of the main fuel tank. These were solid rocket boosters, or SRBs. The

SRBs were made by Thiokol at their factory at Utah. The engineers who designed the SRBs

would have preferred to make them a bit fatter, but the SRBs had to be shipped by train

from the factory to the launch site. The railroad line from the factory happened to run through

a tunnel in the mountains. The SRBs had to fit through that tunnel. The tunnel was slightly

wider than the railroad track, and the railroad track, as you now know, is about as wide as

two horses' behinds.

So, a major Space Shuttle design feature of what was arguably the world's most advanced

transportation system was determined over two thousand years ago by the width of a

horse's a**. .... and you thought being a HORSE'S A** wasn't important!

Life Factor # 22018-06-18


Life Factor # 2


Heater Design


The design of a heater has much to do with its performance and, therefore, its life in an

application.  The Watt-Flex® cartridge heater does not have a ceramic core that can crack

during the swaging process.  Conventional heaters will keep a very tight distance between

coil and sheath to affect optimum heat transfer.  But this limits the insulation value.  Since

Dalton Electric swages the cartridge to a much denser state, the compacted insulation value

is greater than a conventional heater, keeping the current in the coil and eliminating shorting

to sheath.



Additionally, the greater compaction allows for better heat transfer.  So Dalton heaters

are not affected by the greater distance between coil and sheath, since the heat moves

more efficiently through the dielectric. 


And, the split sheath design will expand when energized to move heat away from the

heater into the host metal through wall-to-wall contact (conduction heating optimized). 

Cooler running coils simply last longer and the unique design of the Watt-Flex split

sheath simply contributes to longer life.





   Friday Funnies


          What to wear when your wife wants you to do some work ...





Life Factor # 12018-06-08

Life Factor # 1


Watt Density


There is a direct correlation between the watt density of a cartridge heater and the amount

of heat produced by the heater.  Watt density is the number of watts per square inch

of heated surface area of the heater.  Obviously, tremendously high watt density can be

produced in a heater, but the real issue becomes supplying a warrantable watt density.

If the watt density is too high for an application, the heater will simply generate too much

heat to effectively transfer and burn itself up.


Uniform and denser compaction of the Magnesium Oxide in a Watt-Flex® cartridge heater

will allow a much higher warrantable watt density as compared to a conventional cartridge.

We have samples of 3/8" diameter heaters at 85 watts per square inch that burn bright

orange in open air all day at industrial shows.  Expansion in the bore for more effective heat

transfer to the host metal will also enhance the movement of heat away from the heater and,

consequently, the life of the cartridge.


Larger diameter heaters are not as tolerant of higher watt density because the overriding

concern becomes overall wattage.  For example, a heater at 3/8 x 20" with a watt density

of 100 watts/in² will be about 2340 watts, whereas a 3/4 x 20" at the same watt density will

be about 4720 watts.  Total wattage and amperage can become compromising factors in

the heater life.  If you are considering a high watt density heater, give us a call for all 





                Friday Funnies


Many aspects of human sexuality are very puzzling.  Take celibacy. This can be a choice

in life, or a condition imposed by environmental factors:


While attending a Marriage Encounter Weekend, Bill and Jane listened to the instructor

declare, "It is essential that husbands and wives know the things that are important to each

other."  He addressed the men: "Can you each name and describe your wife's favorite flower?"


Bill leaned over, touched Jane's arm gently and whispered, "Self-raising, isn't it?"


… And thus began Bill's life of celibacy.

It's All About Life2018-06-01


It's All About Life


The life of a cartridge heater is dependent on a wide variety of factors:


1)  Watt Density

2)  Heater Design (integrity of resistance wire, amount of insulation)

3)  Process Temperature

4)  Temperature Control Mechanism

5)  Heat Sink Material

6)  Fit in the bore

7)  Environmental Factors (Contamination, Shock, Vibration)


Watt-Flex® cartridge heaters continue to outlast conventional heaters in customer

trials in a wide variety of applications from packaging, plastics, metal die casting,

lamination dies and huge forming hammer dies at 1000°C.  Over the next few weeks

we will discuss these factors and how we, as salespeople, can optimize on each.


This is a particularly critical process since our continuing success in the world of

sales often depends on our ability  to help our customers determine what problems

they have and how we can address and eliminate them with effective solutions.




            Friday Funnies


Four macho guys went on a fishing expedition. To save a little money, they rented a small

cabin that had only two bedrooms. Bill slept with Charlie the first night and he came

to breakfast next morning with his hair a mess, and his eyes all bloodshot.  The other

two asked, "What happened to you?"


Bill said, "That Charlie, he snores so loud, I was kept awake watching him all night. I

can't do that another night so one of you has got to do it!"


Since Charlie snored so loudly, no one else wanted to room with him, but they finally

agreed to take turns.


The next night was Oscar's turn.   In the morning, the same thing - hair all standing up,

eyes all blood shot.  Oscar declared, "Man, that Charlie shakes the roof. And he sleeps

so hard, I couldn't wake him! I watched him all night."


The third night was Steve's turn. The next morning Steve came to breakfast bright eyed

and bushy tailed.   The other two couldn't believe it!


"What happened?" they asked, "How on earth did you sleep with all that racket?"  Steve

said, "Well, as we got ready for bed, I went and tucked Charlie into bed and kissed him

good night. He watched me all night long."